Types of Forests in Pakistan: Reason and Effects of Deforestation

Date:

Share post:

Types of forests in Pakistan: Reason and Effects of Deforestation

Forests play an important role in our lives, and no one can deny their importance in terms of personal, economic, and environmental well-being. \”The forest is a diversified collection, a biological system with many interconnections with both living and non-living components of the environment,\” we might say. Because forests are such an important aspect of the world, life on the planet is balance. Forests have a worth that cannot articulate in a few words. It greatly impacts our daily lives even in a busy, noisy, concrete city center. Forests in Pakistan help the country\’s economy. Forests are also often regarde as the bedrock of a country\’s economic prosperity. However, despite our need for trees, we continue to allow them to disappear. There are many types of forests in Pakistan

Forests are large, continuous regions of land where trees predominate. A country\’s forest cover should be between 20 and 30% of its overall area. Only roughly 4.8% of Pakistan\’s total land area is wooded. In Pakistan, there are two types of forests.

Productive Forests

\"Productive

These are mostly natural forests with dense tree cover. These forests have a high commercial value and are mostly exploit for timber and other products extraction.

Protection Forests

\"Protection

These are primarily human-plante forests. Planting beside roads, in parks, and along railway lines is one of them. Because they do not yield desirable wood species, protection forests have little commercial value. The major purpose of these structures is to prevent soil erosion.

CDA Develops Word’s Largest Urban Miyawaki Forest in Islamabad

Importance Of Forest 

  • Forests help keep the environment in balance by reducing pollution and preserving soil from erosion from an ecological standpoint.
  • Trees on hill slopes reduce soil erosion while also regulating water delivery to reservoirs, decreasing floods.
  • The decomposition of leaves aids in the development of humus, which keeps the soil fertile. This ensures that millions of people have access to food.
  • Forests give raw materials to a variety of sectors from a commercial and industrial standpoint. They also help to promote tourism and generate jobs in the forest service.
  •  Forests aid in the mitigation of global warming. The greenhouse effect is cause by an increase in carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere, which causes global warming.
  • Forests aid in the mitigation of global warming. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere rise, causing the greenhouse effect and consequently global warming.

Forests in Pakistan

It\’s debatable how much of Pakistan\’s territory is covere in the forest. Forests in Pakistan cover deficiency, mostly due to the arid and semi-arid climate that prevails in large parts of the country. Pakistan\’s forest cover accounts for less than 6% of the country\’s total land area. 10 thousand acres of forest are destroye each year in Pakistan. Overhunting of forest food and charcoal and illegal and unethical logging are all contributing factors to the species\’ extinction. Forest fires, natural calamities, parasites, and illnesses all play a role in slowing the rate of decrease. All of this puts the survival of many species in jeopardy, adds to global warming, and puts people\’s livelihoods in jeopardy.

Pakistan\’s Forest Resources 

According to international norms, trees cover only 2.2 % of Pakistan\’s area, when the global standard is 25 %. Soil conservation, water flow regulation for irrigation and power generation, sedimentation reduction in water conveyances and reservoirs, employment, and ecological balance are benefits of the forestry sector. Pakistan has a timber and firewood shortage of around 29 million cubic meters due to its forest shortfall.

In the map of Pakistan, the area covere by forest is depicted in the following figure. The forest map of Pakistan displays the country\’s forest landscape. It represents many forest types and locations.

Also Read: Benefits Of Forests In Pakistan

Each Province\’s Forest Distribution

The following information was gather from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization\’s sources. The figure shows that AJ&K has the most forested land (27.1 %), whereas Balochistan has the least (0.9 % ). KPK and Baltistan are roughly identical in terms of percentages. The woodlands of Pakistan are primarily found in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, and Pakistan.

Changa-Manga Forest

\"Changa-Manga

When discussing Forests in Pakistan, the \”change manga\” forest must include. Changa Manga Forest is regarde as Pakistan\’s largest forest. In the Punjab province, it is around 80 kilometers southwest of Lahore. Changa Manga is known as \”one of the world\’s oldest hand-planted forests\”. It is home to a wide variety of flora and wildlife species. It is home to 14 distinct mammal species, 50 different birds, six different reptiles, two different amphibians, and 27 different insects, among other creatures. It\’s critical to include citations. However, the forest provides a critical natural refuge for the wildlife of the surrounding area and produces timber for the local economy.

Types of Forest in Pakistan

Now we\’ll look at some of the numerous types of forests that may be found in Pakistan. Forests are classified into a variety of sorts and categories based on their environmental circumstances. However, Types of forests in Pakistan are defined as \”a piece of vegetation having broad physiognomic and structural characteristics distinct enough from other similar entities.\”

1 – Mangroves Forests

\"Mangroves

These forests, also known as \”Littoral and Swamp Forests,\” are predominantly located in the Arabian Sea around the beaches of Karachi and Pasnik in Balochistan and have low-growing trees. The composition of mangrove forests is primarily promiscuous. Avicenna marina is the most prevalent species of mangrove forest, accounting for nearly all of them. Other species, such as Rhizophora, have been extinct as a result of excessive logging over time. According to recent estimations, this forest covers a total area of 207,000 hectares.

2 – Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests

\"Tropical

The trees in these sorts of forests are usually low or moderately tall, and they are almost entirely made up of deciduous species that shed their leaves every year. An aerial view of tropical dry deciduous woods reveals exceedingly dense during the wet season and difficult to differentiate from other types of forests in Pakistan. The floral composition of the trees in the forest is a common property shared by tropical dry deciduous forests and the rest of Pakistan\’s forest that distinguishes them from the others. There are no large-scale tropical dry deciduous forests in Pakistan, and those that do exist are prone to ground fires. In the Rawalpindi foothills, there are just a few spots of this vegetation type.

3 – Tropical Thorn Forests

\"Tropical

Tropical thorn forests are low-lying, open-planted forestlands where the majority of the trees are prickly leguminous species. The most frequent xerophytic plants are those that grow in the shade of tropical thorn forests. This type of flora covers the whole Indus basin, save for the driest parts of the plain. The Punjab plains are the most prevalent, but they can also found in small quantities in southern Sindh and western Balochistan.

The climate varies from semi-arid (250 to 750 mm) to desert (less than 250 mm) (less than 250 mm rainfall). The temperature in this area can exceed 50 degrees Celsius in the summer. The majority of its uses, among other things, are related to grazing, watershed maintenance, and fuelwood production. Vann, Mukherji, and chair are among the most common species.

4 – Sub Tropical Broad-Leaf Evergreen Forests

\"Sub

As the name implies, subtropical broad-leave evergreen forests are xerophytic woods with thorny, small-leaved, and evergreen plant species. These can be found in the Salt Range, the Kalachitta Mountains, the Sulaiman Mountains, and on the Himalayan slopes and low sides.

5 – Subtropical Pine Forest

\"\"

The normous number of diverse species of coniferous trees and forest plants that may found in the area make them known as Himalayan \”Subtropical Pine Forests.\” However, these forestland areas are home to pine trees and other species that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. In this sort of types of forests in Pakistan, a forest fire is very likely to occur. This type of forest is mostly found in Pakistan\’s Western Himalayas, also known as the Punjab Himalayas, between 900 and 1700 meters.

6 – Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests

\"Himalayan

Evergreen coniferous woodlands, with a limited quantity of oak and deciduous broad-leaved trees in some regions, make up this forest type. The undergrowth of Himalayan moist temperate forests is scant, resulting in a diverse mix of evergreen and deciduous plants. These woods are separate into two zones in Types of forests in Pakistan based on the number of conifers or oak trees present: lower and upper zones. Apart from the far northwest, where rainfall is estimate to be less than 1,000 meters, Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests are found between 1500 and 3000 feet above sea level in the Western Himalayas.

7 – Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests

\"Himalayan

They are compose of open, evergreen forests with mostly scrubby undergrowth. In the Himalayas, the Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests are old-growth trees with open scrub undergrowth. In Types of forests in Pakistan comprises both coniferous and broad-leaved trees, making it a mixed forest. The Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests are primarily located in the northern Himalayan Range, where the environment is frequently dry.

8 – Sub-alpine Forests

\"Sub-alpine

Alpine forest, which may be found primarily in hilly areas and mountainous regions of Pakistan, is classified into sub-alpine forests and alpine scrubs. Sub-alpine forests can found all over the Himalayas, from 3,350 meters to the timber limit. In these sorts of the forest, the M.A.T. is 100C or below 00 C for 5 to 6 months. The maximum temperature in this area does not exceed 15.60 degrees Celsius. Naltar Valley, Kaghan Valley, Kashmir, Dir, Swat, and Chitral are the most common locations.

9 – Riverain/ Riparian Forest

\"Riverain

They are compose of open, evergreen forests with mostly scrubby undergrowth. In the Himalayas, the Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests are old-growth trees with open scrub undergrowth. In Types of forests in Pakistan comprises both coniferous and broad-leaved trees, making it a mixed forest. The Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests are primarily located in the northern Himalayan Range, where the environment is frequently dry.

10 –Alpine scrub

\"Alpine

Alpine forest, which may be found primarily in hilly areas and mountainous regions of Pakistan, is classified into sub-alpine forests and alpine scrubs. Sub-alpine forests can found all over the Himalayas, from 3,350 meters to the timber limit. In these sorts of the forest, the M.A.T. is 100C or below 00 C for 5 to 6 months. The maximum temperature in this area does not exceed 15.60 degrees Celsius. Naltar Valley, Kaghan Valley, Kashmir, Dir, Swat, and Chitral are the most common locations.

Deforestation

\"Deforestation

Deforestation is the process of clearing forest areas. Forests in Pakistan imports billions of rupees worth of wood and wood-based products since it is not self-sufficient. Pakistan\’s forest resources are dwindling at a pace of 1% each year, which would have disastrous consequences for the Pakistani population. The following are some of the primary causes of Pakistan\’s massive deforestation.

Clearing of land

\"Clearing

The majority of the forest area has removed due to dams and barrages to feed water to crops on millions of hectares. Deforestation is also a result of the construction of barrages.

Urbanization

\"Urbanization\"

Cities\’ sprawling growth has changed forests into cities, resulting in the loss of forests or reduced forest area.

Building of Roads

\"Building

Road construction to access remote locations has resulted in deforestation, particularly in Kohistan and the northern areas.

Industrialization

\"Industrialization\"

 As most businesses use wood as a fuel source, the increase in demand has resulted in deforestation. Hardwood and safety matchboxes, Plywood, and other wood businesses have all contributed to deforestation.

Overgrazing

\"Overgrazing\"

Cattle, sheep, and goats have changed subtropical and tropical thorn woodland areas into deserts due to overgrazing.

Also Raed: Here Some Major Exports of Pakistan 

Effects of Deforestation 

Deforestation can occur as a result of indiscriminate tree cutting for firewood or other economic objectives. The consequences are exceedingly damaging, and they may result in environmental degradation and a loss of food and resources.

  • With less vegetation, the climate changes, leading to less rainfall, leading to poorer agricultural yields. 
  • With less vegetation, the climate changes, resulting in less rainfall, leading to lower crop yields. Many amazing plant and animal species have perished, and many more are on the verge of extinction.
  • More than 80% of the world\’s species are found in the Tropical Rainforest, and it is believed that 50 to 100 kinds of animals perish every day due to habitat destruction.

The Solution to the problem Caused By Deforestation

The following measures may be useful in addressing the issues produced by deforestation.

  • Providing deforested areas with irrigation facilities. Commercially available fast-growing tree species should planted.
  • Why By reserving an area for solely fuelwood plantations, valuable tree species can be preserved.
  • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) raising public awareness about the dangers of deforestation.
  •  By improving nursery and tree-planting processes, deforested lands could be restored in a short period.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

spot_img

Related articles

Bipasha Basu, Karan Singh Grover blessed with a ‘baby girl

According to Indian Press, Bipasha Basu and Karan Singh Grover have embraced fatherhood. The couple's first child, a baby...

Nestle Fake Verified Account Spoiling The Brand Reputation Using Twitter $8 Subscription

Nestle Fake Verified Account: Twitter has suspended its $8 blue tick subscription plan that it had launched earlier...

Rana Sanaullah Recovering After ‘Medical Procedure’

Due to a heart issue, Interior Minister Rana Sanaullah was brought to the AFIC hospital in Rawalpindi on...

WATCH: Hania Aamir narrowly escapes Gujranwala mob in latest meetup

Hania Aamir, a trendsetter and vivacious actor from Pakistan, almost escaped the attack by male fans at the...